WHAT IS GLAUCOMA?
Glaucoma is a disease which leads to a damage to the optic nerve which causes progressive and irreversible vision loss. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness all around the Globe and mostly affects people over the age of 60 Years.
What causes Glaucoma?
It happens when the fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. The extra fluid increases the pressure in the eye and further damages the optic nerve.
What are the types of Glaucoma?
There are four types of different types of Glaucoma which are derived depending upon the reason of the cause of the incidence of Glaucoma.
1. OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
Also called as Primary Open-angle GlaucomaThis is the most common form of glaucoma, chronic open-angle glaucoma is an outcome of a pressure build-up in the eye which leads to severe vision loss without showing any noticeable symptoms of the same. Its exact cause is still a mystery. Expert researching on this have speculated that the human eye’s natural ability to drain fluid may be leading to high amounts of intraocular pressure, which further leads to damage of the optic nerve which causes the loss of vision. Another major reason of having Chronic Open-angle Glaucoma can be a sensitive optic nerve that is very sensitive to normal eye pressure. Regular eye checkups can be helpful in keeping a check at the same and treat it at an early stage
2. ACUTE CLOSED-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
Acute Closed-angle Glaucoma also called as an acute attack is completely opposite of that of Chronic Open-angle Glaucoma as its occurrence is sudden and very painful. It can cause severe damage and lead to permanent loss of vision in a short span of time. It is a result of a narrow drainage angle and mostly occurs in the area of the eye in between the iris and cornea unable to drain fluid. Angle-closure glaucoma can cause blindness if not treated right away.
3. SECONDARY GLAUCOMA
Secondary Glaucoma occurs as a result of something else apart from internal pressure which including the following:
- i. Previous medical conditions.
- ii. Injuries and
- iii. Medications.
Symptoms of Glaucoma
- i. Sudden blurry vision.
- ii. Headache.
- iii. Severe eye pain.
- iv. Vomiting.
- v. Rainbow-coloured rings.
- vi. A halo around lights.
- vii. Nausea.
Treatment of Glaucoma
Glaucoma can be treated with eye drops, pills, laser surgery, traditional surgery and a combination of all of these methods depending on its severity.The loss of vision from glaucoma is irreversible and the ultimate goal of any treatment is to prevent the loss of vision. Glaucoma can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage.
- i. Eye Drops: Eye drops can decrease the pressure in the eye by slowing the production of fluids within the eye and improving the flow of the drainage.
- ii. Pills: Pills may be prescribed in addition to drops.
- iii. Laser Surgery: Laser surgery has recently become popular as it is a midway of medications and traditional eye surgery. In this procedure, the eye’s drainage system is changed in very subtle ways so that aqueous fluid is able to pass more easily out of the drain, which leads to lowering the IOP.
- iv. Surgery: The obvious aim of glaucoma surgery and rest other treatments are to reduce or stabilize the Intra Ocular pressure (IOP). When the goal is accomplished by stabilising the pressure, damage to ocular structures – especially of the optic nerve – may be prevented.
A) Trabeculectomy : it is a surgical procedure done to relieve and stabilize the Intraocular pressure by extracting out a part of the eye’s trabecular meshwork and adjacent meshwork.The surgery helps in controlling the leaking fluid from the eye, which percolates under the conjunctiva. The surgery produces a valve where the same conjunctival bubble appears at the junction of the cornea and the sclera.
B) Implants for Glaucoma : Shunts and Stents are small devices in a shape of a tube made of plastic, metal or fabric that are inserted into the eye surgically to increase the outflow of intraocular fluid and reduce the high eye pressure. The stent helps in reducing and stabilizing the pressure in the eye. The devices create an alternative passageway to relieve obstructions and keep the passage open for the aqueous to escape from the eye by creating a separate passage to bypass the damaged part of the eye where the drainage occurs which leads to reduce and stabilise the pressure on the eye.
We incorporate some of the most advanced diagnostic procedures for glaucoma.
Testing could include:
- Checking eye pressure
- Ultrasonic measurement of the thickness of the front of your “cornea,”
the clear front part of your eyes to help determine your “true” eye pressure
- Assessment and (when needed) digital photography of your “optic nerve” in the back of your eyes
- Visual Fields testing to check for changes in your peripheral vision
- Nerve-Fiber analysis:
- Use of a scanning laser to measure the thickness of the tissue around your optic nerve
- Thinning of the “nerve fiber layer” in the retina has been identified as the earliest,
irreversible change with glaucoma
- Can pick up the earliest changes 5-10 years before it will show up on other diagnostic tests